The display at the Deutsch Apotheken Muesum at Heidelberg also boasts a vast collection of various herbs, roots, and other various plant bits and minerals and what not; stuff used for preparing medicinal solutions/infusions/salves/powders. A glimpse of some of these follows in these few posts.
Apart from the endless line of plant parts, minerals and chemicals were also used for preparing medicine: sulphur, lead, mercury, arsenic, iron, silver, gold; these names come readily to mind. Many of these are now known to be toxic in high concentrations but their empirical effects in some cases led to their widespread use.
Some preparations and ores of sulphur and mercury.